Ancient Baselines Archaeogeodesy is defined as an area of study encompassing prehistoric and ancient place determination, point positioning, astronomy, geodynamic phenomena, measure and representation of the earth, surveying, and navigation on land or water.

Introduction





... One of the oldest known stone circles is at Nabta Playa in Egypt. The latitude placement of Nabta Playa, near onefourth the distance from equator to pole, could imply intentional latitude placement originates by around 7,500 years ago. Given such early context, less suprisingly some of the largest monuments in the world and earliest major monuments in both hemispheres evidence construction at specific significant latitudes. These selected latitudes imply astronomy is the functional rationale of their geodetic geometry. Given latitude placements are intentional, monument positioning evidences the earliest known precise astronomical and geodetic measurements. Thus, the greatest of ancient monuments evidence a capability of accurately determining latitude spanning the range of their construction and the earliest evidence of astronomical observatories using exact sciences is implied by latitude positioning. Astronomy is essential to place determination relative to the whole earth. 
2015.01.14  I recently focused on the ancient pyramids in East Asia, including Emperor Qin's mausoleum. The massive Qin Shi Huang pyramid was also a focus of my latitude study. Several new files illustrate the findings. While not as precise as the latitude placements of Chavin (asin 1/6) and Monk's Mound (atan 4/5), or the nodal to anomalistic colatitude ratio of the Octagon and Capitolium, the Qin monument does overlap two significant latitudes, the golden mean between the equator and the pole along with threefifths of a radian from the equator.... At the Qin Shi Huang pyramid, the latitude equals 0.600067 radians and the colatitude to latitude ratio is 1.0 : 0.61816. The two baselines transect the pyramid field north of Xian, passing just north of the Yan Ling Pyramid (yalip, latitude = 0.59996 radians, = 0.61806 colatitude). At the phi baseline, the ratio of distance to the pole and to the equator is one to phi (1.0 : 1.618034 = 0.618034 : 1.0). This equals the ratio at the pole of the distance to the equator and to the baseline, thus the golden mean (φ = 1.6180340). Two arcs are a golden ratio if their proportions equal the ratio of their sum to the larger arc, in this case [lat : colat = colat : (lat + colat)].

The latitude at Machupicchu equals daily lunar orbit motion. 

Site  Code  Latitude  Module  Circumference 
mmapi  13.174738°  0.999877 c27  0.0365965  
uinti  13.175667°  0.999948 c27  0.0365991  
lla05  13.176880°  1.000040 c27  0.0366024 
Site  Code  Latitude  Module  Circumference 
inkar  13.150298°  1.000755 r27  0.0365286  
hpgcu  13.151962°  1.000881 r27  0.0365332  
mwayn  13.156595°  1.001234 r27  0.0365461 
Site  Code  Latitude  Circumference 
Wiñay Wayna  winay  13.193284°  0.0366480 
Llactapata IV  lla04  13.193994°  0.0366500 
Site  Code  Latitude  Circumference 
Pulpituyoc  pulpi  13.229190°  0.0367478 
Urubamba Tambo  urubt  13.229324°  0.0367483 
Sayaqmarka  sayaq  13.228233°  0.0367451 
Runkuraqay  runkt  13.228316°  0.0367453 
20181122  Chavin de Huantar Archaeogeodesy posted, new findings and an updated chavin.kml with more image embeds, text, and links. 

Sechin Alto, largest truncated pyramid in the Americas.


2020.01.01  Currently, more than 500 geoglyphs are recorded in both an Excel spreadsheet and Google Earth placemark files. The geoglyphs are placemarked, all except the smallest earthworks are outlined, plus visible ancient lines are highlighted. Links to the most recent files:
Web Archive 


2009.04.04  I've discussed geodetic geometry of monument latitudes, 4/5 atan at Monks Mound, 3/5 atan atop Ur Ziggurat, 3:4:5 at Harran, cir/7 at Avebury, cir/14 at Karnak, and other sites. One of the oldest known stone circles, situated onefourth the distance from equator to pole at Nabta Playa, Egypt, implies intentional latitude placement originates at an early date (4800 B.C.). In contrast to simple integer ratios of spatial geometry, the latitudes at Newark and Marietta present solar and lunar motion numbers and a fundamental lunar motion ratio. Marietta's latitude equals 40 times solar orbit per day (so). The same astronomy module relates to Ur Ziggurat, with the Marietta and Ur latitudes equating at 4 to pi. Latitude Ur Ziggurat 30.9638° = 3/5 atan = 31.4159 so. Marietta latitude also presents a low integer ratio for rotations and lunar orbits. Latitude baselines transecting the site equal both 40 times solar orbit per day (40 so) (3 r27 = 39.9967 so) and three times lunar orbit per rotation (3 r27). ... The 3 r27 less 40 so latitude difference equals 0.0032° or 357 m (also the diameter of the Great Circle). Around 322 A.D. earth's rotation axis was inclined 3/5th's of Marietta's latitude, an arc equal to 1.8 r27 and 24 days of solar orbit (24 so). The 55 so latitude at Thornborough Circles in England equals eleveneights Marietta's latitude. 


Menorca, Sardinia, Malta, Carthage epoch karnak (1500) ot = 18.598105 orbits per lunar orbit turn epoch karnak os = 18.611340 orbits per lunar standstill period epoch karnak ys = 18.612052 years per lunar standstill period 