CIS 105 -- Survey of Computer Information Systems

Essential Concepts and Terminology -- Study Unit 10.

The simultaneous action of separate agencies which, together, have a greater total effect than their separate effects.
Computer Network.
A collection of computers and related devices, connected in a way that allows them to share data, hardware, and software.
A device with a keyboard and a monitor, used for input and output, but not for processing.
Local Area Network (LAN).
An interconnected group of computers and peripherals located within a relatively limited area, such as building or a campus.
Network Version Software.
Applications designed for installation on a file server and made available to more than one user at a time.
Software that provides ways for multiple users to collaborate on a project, usually through a pool of data that can be shared by members of the workgroup.
Circuit Switching.
The method of establishing an end-to-end connect between computers for the duration of a data transmission.
Packet Switching.
A technology employed by data communications networks, such as the Internet, whereby a message is divided into smaller transmission units called packets.
A computer at an intersection on a packet-switching network that examines IP addresses and forwards the data towards its destination on the least congested path.
In data communication and networking, a specifying standard governing data format and transmission rules.
Protocol Suite.
The total collection of protocols that define how a specific network's functions. Networks can employ dozens of protocols.
Protocol Stack.
A network architecture concept that describes the sequence of data handling, between the user and the physical media, by a series of protocols.
Network Interface Card (NIC) .
A circuit board that enables sending and receiving data on a network.
A computer connected to a local area network.
Each device on a network, including workstations, servers, printers, and other peripherals.
Client/Server Network.
A network with workstations (clients) and one or more the servers.
File Server.
In client/server computing, a high-capacity, high-speed computer dedicated to making files and programs available to client workstations and nodes.
In network computing, all the workstations that connect to and send requests to a server.
The physical layout of a network. The pattern of communications pathways, such as star, bus, and ring.
A disruption of communication that occurs when two packets are sent at the same time. Corruption of data caused by simultaneous transmission.
A LAN standard in which network nodes are connected by coaxial cable or twisted-pair wire. The most popular network architecture, capable of transmitting data at 10 Mbps to 1 Gbps.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).
A set of business-to-business standards to facilitate paperless financial transactions.


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