CIS 105 -- Survey of Computer Information Systems

Essential Concepts and Terminology -- Study Unit 8.

Web Site.
A location on the World Wide Web that contains a collection of related documents and a common top-level address.
Index Page. (Home Page.)
A default page that automatically displays when the top level of a Web site is accessed.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
The unique and complete address that specifies precisely the location of a document or resource on the World Wide Web.
The portion of a URL that specifies the location of a document on the Internet, including the domain name and site folders. An example is jqjacobs.net/edu/cis105/
Resource Name.
The portion of a URL specifying file name and extension. Examples are index.html or style.css.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
The rules specifying the format of URLs and the procedures clients and servers utilize to communicate. Also, http:// is the identifier at the beginning of a URL.
Boolean Operators.
The operators AND, OR, and NOT, often used with keywords to specify search parameters.
Search Engine.
A program to locate information in a database. A service providing a searchable database of Web documents.
Wildcard Character.
A symbol, such as an asterisk, used to represent a string of characters, and often supported by search engines.
Proximity Operator.
A symbol or keyword, such as NEAR, used in searches to retrieve records only if two specified words occur close to each other.
Short for electronic commerce, it is the business of buying and selling products online.
The process, using a cipher key, of converting information so that it cannot be understood or changed back into its original form without the key.
Secure Mode.
In a Web browser, the mode of operation in which all communications are encrypted.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
An international consortium of experts that specifies standards for www languages and development.
Declarative Language.
A computer language that can be used to identify the components of a text and codify their presentation. (Synonymous with markup language.)
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language).
A standardized, plain text document format used to display Web pages. Markup refers to the code tags, such as <html> or <table>, and the method of marking the code (brackets).
A markup inserted into an HTML document to provide information about a unit of content. All HTML tags are enclosed in brackets (ie. <table>). Some tags require closing tags (ie. </table>).
HTML Elements.
In HTML, elements are markup declarations to display or format parts of Web pages. Examples are <p> for paragraph or <b> for bold.
In the context of HTML, additional required or optional information enabling specification of characteristics of elements and related values (ie. <table width =”80%">).
In the HTML context, a value specifies information about an attribute, is often required, and is typically preceded by an equals sign and enclosed in quotation marks (ie. <font color=“red”>).
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
A document type definition (DTD) standard for how to specify a markup language or tag set.
Extensible Markup Language (XML).
A simplified, easy-to-use version of SGML similar to HTML that allows definition of customized tags.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
A markup language providing specific presentation information for single html tags, for all specified tags in a document, or, as a linked document, for many documents.
Web Server.
A computer that uses software to transmit Web pages and associated files over the Internet.


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