Latitude Geometry and Astronomy
The importance of Chavin is evidenced by latitude trigonometry, cosine equals one-sixth. In the 1980s I noted the geodetic axis of Cahokia, the line to the center of the earth's mass, is the hypotenuse of a 4:5 geocentric triangle. Cahokia's obvious east-west axis, Woodhenge, and Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric monument north of Mexico and the largest-in-volume prehistoric earthen construction in the Americas, are precisely situated at the geodetic latitude with tangent equaling four-fifths. Thereafter I determined and converted the latitudes of other major monuments to trigonometric functions and other geodetic and astronomical modules.
One of the oldest known stone circles is Nabta Playa in Egypt. The latitude placement of Nabta Playa, near one-fourth the distance from equator to pole, could imply intentional latitude placement originates by around 7,500 years ago. I discovered that some of the largest monuments in the world and earliest major monuments in both hemispheres evidence construction at latitudes which imply accurate astronomy, systematic point positioning, and observational astronomy with geodetic purpose.
The geometry of the angle between the local geodetic and celestial reference frames presents a functional rationale to place astronomical observatories at locations with low-integer geodetic triangles. Monument placement at latitudes where small rational numbers describe the local geometric relationship to celestial motions has astronomical utility. Such placement of observations provides considerable simplification of mathematical operations. With simple integer ratios expressing trigonometric functions, complex math operations are avoided while also eliminating the inaccuracy of decimal rounding.
Given latitude placements are intentional, monument positioning evidences the earliest known precise astronomical and geodetic measurements and the capability of accurately determining latitude spanning the range of their construction. Thus, the earliest evidence of astronomical observatories using exact sciences is monument latitudes. The Chavin latitude implies Chavin was an astronomical observatory. The latitude of the nearby coastal Sechin monument complex, latitude sine equals one-sixth, implies Andean astronomical observatories predate the Nile pyramids in Egypt.
Trigonometric function was a new consideration which I first brought to ancient monument placement. Another latitude property, fractional geodivisions of circumference had received previous notice. Livvio Stecchini noted the latitude at Karnak equals one-seventh the meridian arc. The latitude baseline equaling one-fourteenth of earth's circumference intersects Karnak, passing between the Mut and Amun Halls.
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